There has been a whole lot of controversy in excess of how Covid-19 emerged. For the previous one and half yr, Covid-19 – an invasive, really infectious and virulent disorder has devastated general public wellness and plagued the health care process in India and across the world. At the exact same time, though remaining unnoticed at urban policy level, a troika of alien enemies have infiltrated agriculture and plagued farmers and their crops in the previous several decades. Even with industry experts sounding alarms for decades, the biosecurity, phytosanitary import regulation and quarantine actions unsuccessful to include the inflow of invasive pests and diseases.
The very first and foremost enemy of agriculture is the invasive drop armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) that invaded the hinterlands in Could 2018. It is a devastating pest of maize and now can be seen detrimental sugarcane, sorghum and millets. The second unidentified enemy is a fungal plant pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense) novel pressure “Tropical Race-4” (TR-4) infecting the banana crop in latest decades. Final, but not the minimum is a ravenous migratory pest desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), a gregarious pest that has grow to be a nuisance to farmers in previous two decades. In a lot of parts, these crop enemies have taken a toll as farmers are grappling with administration methods and effective management actions.
Compromising foodstuff security
The new enemies of agriculture are described as the equivalent of Covid-19 and have the possible to distribute like an epidemic in agriculture and compromise India’s foodstuff security. It is time that crop wellness enemies get the type of policy focus offered for the administration of Covid-19, which includes the rapidly-monitoring crisis approval of novel biotherapeutics and vaccines, surveillance of prevalence, determination of micro-containment zones and awareness about proper conduct. Strengthening phytosanitary and quarantine actions, shedding anti-science bias in the direction of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) and genome enhancing, rapidly-monitoring approval of biotech characteristics and crop safety molecules and deployment of drones are some of essential parts of interventions for the avoidance and mitigation of hazard by invasive pests and diseases in agriculture. The Indian governing administration should look past the produced pseudo-controversy and misinformation about science of agriculture allow policy atmosphere, streamline regulatory processes and monitor inter-ministerial cooperation in numerous regulatory bodies to attain the goal of crop wellness and foodstuff security
A latest rapid roving survey by SABC of fodder maize crop in some elements of Aurangabad division in early summer indicated a stressing pattern of FAW infestation in fodder maize fields that can have a spill in excess of impression of industrial maize in the forthcoming kharif period. Also, there have been reviews of FAW infestation of maize crop planted in spring and summer in North, North-East and Southern India. There is a have to have to maintain close check out on pest dynamics and maize growers should be alerted for imminent threat, if any. The rapid migration of FAW given that Could 2018 displays the skill of the pest to rapidly reproduce, aggressive feeding as very well as rapidly migration to maize creating areas. The agricultural R&D and extension process should not continue to be complacent, and farmers have to have to be cautious of the ravenous drop armyworm.
Novel fungal pressure
In addition, a novel fungal pressure TR-4 has been just lately reported in 2017 and emerged as a big threat to banana fruit plantation in Bihar, UP, MP and Maharashtra. The TR-4 race of panama wilt of banana has leapfrogged across the world, starting from Taiwan, then to South Asia, Africa and has now entered India. The pressure TR-4 affects the widely cultivated exportable banana range Grand Naine (G-nine) and can result in huge reduction to farmers and distribute promptly in soil and h2o. Until now, the banana crop planted in excess of nine lakh hectares mainly remains pest-free of charge besides some manageable disorder this kind of as Sigatoka and Bunchy major virus. The massive-scale banana plantation in Bihar, UP, MP, Maharashtra and Gujarat are vulnerable to disorder TR-4 and can sufferunless it is effectively controlled. None of the cultivated varieties are resistant. For that reason, there is a have to have forsurveillance to understand the an infection and signs and symptoms of this disorder for well timed management actions. Currently the only treatment is to identify the wilted vegetation owing to TR-4 and wipe out them to stay clear of contamination. Sanitation of the banana gardens is the greatest preventive evaluate.
Definitely, checking and surveillance are the hallmarks for early reaction, management actions and effective administration of the invasive enemies. Desert locust is the traditional example of how the suitable checking makes it possible for FAO to offer forecasts, early warning and alerts on the timing, breeding, scale and site of invasions. India experienced locust outbreak in 2020 and we should now actively coordinate with FAO Locust Plan to evaluate probability of migration of locust swarms from Africa toward South-West Asia in the long run. Producing bilateral collaboration with locust hosts as very well as influenced nations around the world is essential to keep track of, trace and mitigate hurt.
An additional big concern is how innovation in biotechnology would be created out there in our place to superior management the drop armyworm as very well as TR-4 fungal disorder. The US and Latin American nations around the world have been capable to management drop armyworm for the previous twenty decades making use of insect resistant Bt maize. Australian experts have just lately designed genetically-modified bananas making use of the genome edited CRISPR procedure for Fusarium mutant TR-4. These systems will shortly be adopted by banana growing nations around the world to triumph over the unbearable impression of Fusarium disorder. In India, the policy uncertainty on genetically modified crops has previously delayed introduction of protected and verified biotechnologies in maize, soybean and canola.
Novel vaccines and biotherapeutics designed by genetic modification methods have been expeditiously approved for mass inoculation, even so, the genetic modification in agriculture is delayed and denied to thousands and thousands of farmers besides for Bt cotton, successfully commercialised in 2002 and planted in excess of ninety five per cent of cotton place in 2020. Even with a biological war, a sturdy policy atmosphere and a big press to R&D and innovation can eradicate the troika of alien enemies, strengthen farm realisation and sustainable agriculture.
(Chaudhary is the founder-director of South Asia Biotechnology Centre (SABC), Jodhpur Agale is Investigation Scientist at SABC and Mayee, President of board of directors of the Centre)